I come across this issue from time to time with new QuickBooks installations on RDS (terminal) servers.  The fix is really quite simple, though for some reason I always seem to forget about it when deploying.  Anywho, the symptom is every once in a while the QuickBooks application will require a Windows administrator to logon and launch the application.  Users will see the below prompt:

To fix this:

1. Logon to the server that is hosting the QuickBooks database service

2. Launch services.msc and navigate to the QuickBooksDBxy service (xy changes depending on version)

3. Open the properties of the service and select the “Log On” tab

4.  Change the “Log on as:” to “Local System account” with the “Allow service to interact with desktop” option checked

5. Click OK and restart the service