By default, ADFS 3 (Windows Server 2012R2) only supports the seamless Single Sign-on (SSO) that we all expect with Internet Explorer browsers.  Chrome can be enabled though by following these steps:

1.  Login to your on-premises ADFS server and launch PowerShell as administrator.

2.  Run the following command to see the current set of supported browsers:

If you have the default configuration, it will return the following:

3.  Run the following command to add Chrome support to the list:

4.  Confirm your change running the same get command from step 2.  You should have the following output:

5.  Restart the ADFS service to apply changes:

All done!